A powerful way to investigate the source of individual differences in various characteristics is genetically informative study. Starting from classical twin designs it nowadays incorporates not only quantitative genetics, but molecular genetics as well. In neuroscience genetically informative design can help to disentangle different factors underlying the relationship between neuronal dynamics and cognitive functions.
No identification of abrupt onsets that capture attention: evidence against a unified model of spatial attention
Many studies have reported that spatial attention can be involuntarily captured by salient stimuli such as abrupt onsets. These involuntary shifts are often assumed to have the same effects on feature extraction as voluntary shifts: there are two different ways of moving the same attentional mechanism. According to this unified model of spatial attention, all shifts of attention should enhance the identification of attended objects. We directly tested this assumption using compatibility effects in a series of spatial cueing experiments.
Externally induced frontoparietal synchronization modulates network dynamics and enhances working memory performance
Cognitive functions such as working memory (WM) are emergent properties of large-scale network interactions. Synchronisation of oscillatory activity might contribute to WM by enabling the coordination of long-range processes. However, causal evidence for the way oscillatory activity shapes network dynamics and behavior in humans is limited. Here we applied transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) to exogenously modulate oscillatory activity in a right frontoparietal network that supports WM.
On this experiment we aim to study neural plasticity in the context of cortical excitability using neuromodulatory and neuroexcitatory techniques. We use non invasive brain stimulation techniques (NIBS) aiming for the visual effects called phosphenes and using as reference the measurement of its thresholds.
In the notable study (Libet, Gleason, Wright, & Pearl, 1983) it was shown that movement-preparatory brain activity precedes the reported time of conscious intention to move, which questions the causal role of human being’s decisions in initiating their actions. However, since the study was published, a lot of criticism has been addressed towards it. Thus, Dominik et al. (2017) provided behavioral evidence that the intention reports used in the study of Libet (1983) are invalid, being rather inferred by a participant than truly perceived.
Много значимых открытий было сделано в области функционального и морфофизилогического картирования мозга человека, что существенно расширило наши представления о работе этого важного органа. Современные технологии — ТМС, ТЭС, ЭЭГ, МЭГ — позволяют эффективно оценивать роль разных структур мозга в конкретных задачах, а также получить представление о его комплексной работе.